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halal testing

Breaking Down Halal Product Testing

Halal products are not only a ‘must have’ products in Muslim countries but also non-Muslim countries. Non-OIC countries (Organization of the Islamic Conference), such as South Korea, Japan, and Thailand, need halal products for their Muslim tourists. Foreign exchange entering the country from Muslim tourists was around USD 220 billion in 2020. Consumption prediction of halal products is increasing by around USD 1.978 billion in 2021. Hence opens up opportunities for Indonesia to offer its halal products to these countries.
Indonesia, the largest Muslim population, requires its products and services to have halal certificates, for example, food products, beverages, medicines, cosmetics, slaughtering services, and processing services. Consequently, the Indonesian government regulates halal products through Law No. 33 of 2014 and PP No. 31 of 2019.

Standardization of Halal Fatwa

This year, Indonesia adjusted its halal logo. It signifies the transfer of authority from the MUI to the BPJPH (Halal Product Assurance Organizing Body). BPJPH is a government agency that issues halal certificates and halal labels. From March 1, 2022, the new halal logo will apply nationally. The difference between the old and new one lies in the color, calligraphy, and institution.

In the old halal logo, green and white colors dominate with halal writing in Arabic. Also, the institution that issues the certification is the Indonesian Ulama Council (MUI). Whereas in the new logo, the dominant color is purple. The inscription halal writes in khat kufi calligraphy. MUI’s name was changed to “Halal Indonesia” in the new one.

In Islam, the halal fatwa takes from secondary sources, namely the opinion of fiqh scholars. There are four definitions of halal according to fiqh science. The first is istihalah which, if a product has changed its shape, is no longer haram. For example, capsules made from pork gelatin. Second, istikhlak, which is a mixture of haram and halal products. However, the content of halal products is higher, thus eliminating the smell, taste, and color. The nature of najis and haram is lost.

Ikhtilath, combine haram ingredients with halal ingredients. It differs between solid and liquid products. If the mixing occurs in a liquid, then the liquid becomes unlawful. For example, vaccines that use pork elements. Lastly is the intifa. Intifa is the use of haram products in the slightest form will make it haram.

Indonesian halal certification refers to Surat Al-Maidah verse 88, intifa, and ikhtilat. BPJPH sets strict halal standards with the principle of Zero Tolerance. This principle applies zero tolerance to the entry of haram and najis materials into halal materials, intentionally mixed or accidentally contaminated. Besides that, BPJPH will not process halal certification for products tasyabbuh or similar to forbidden products in Islam.

In addition, halal products must be tayyib. Tayyib means good, safe for consumption, clean, healthy, and high quality regarding physics, chemistry, and biology. Therefore, Indonesian halal products include Food Safety, GMP, and ISO quality.


How to Examine Halal Products?

The BPJPH laboratory uses four analytical methods to investigate food halalness through DNA, protein, lipid (fat), and alcohol analysis. The DNA analysis examines using the Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR). It uses mitochondrial DNA sequences, in which living things have about a thousand mitochondria. Each mitochondrion has ten distinct copies of that DNA. Meanwhile, the alcohol content was analyzed using GC-MS, lipid research by FTIR, and protein analysis using the High-Resolution Mass Spectrometry Liquid Chromatography – Mass Spectrometer (HRMS LC-MS) method.

Specifically, animal cell tissues observe to detect specific proteins in halal products. It applies raw and processed meat samples such as sausages, corned beef, meatballs, etc. The technique commonly used for protein analysis is the bottom-up proteomic technique. The output of the bottom-up proteomics technique is a tryptic peptide sequence, which is unique for each animal type.
The bottom-up proteomic analysis begins by cutting the meat sample into small pieces. Mix every 1g of meat with 5mL of distilled water and homogenized it. Next, the protein was extracted and digested with two µg proteomics-grade trypsin at 40°C for 24 hours. Add 500 µL of 1% TFA solution into the sample digestion result. Then, centrifuge the sample at 12000 g for 10 min. Transfer 200 µL of the supernatant into a Thermo Scientific Exactive Orbitrap injection vial.

The tables below are the bottom-up proteomic analysis in detecting tryptic peptides in myoglobin, myosin-1, myosin-2, and β-hemoglobin for raw meat samples.

Table 1. Myoglobin Prototypic Peptide In Animal Species
Peptida proteolytic halal
Table 2. Other identified proteolytic peptides from animal species.
kromatogram daging halal
Graph 1. Chromatogram of a sample of meat mixed with 1% pork.

From the data above, the HRMS LC-MS has proven reliable as an instrument to detect meat authentication. Please read more about the analysis of halal products in this application note.
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